Nurhachu Huangtaiji(皇太极) Emperor Shunzhi (Fulin,福臨)
 
 
 Emperor Kangxi (Xuanye, 玄烨) Emperor Yongzheng(Yinzhen, 胤祯) Emperor Qianlong(Hongli, 弘历)
 
 
 Emperor Jiaqing (Yongyan, 顒琰) Emperor Daoguang(Mianning, 绵宁) Emperor Xianfeng (Yining, 奕宁)
 
 
Emperor Tongzhi(Zaichun, 载淳)
 
 
 Empress Dowager Cixi(Reign Behind a Curtain,垂帘听政)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nurhachu (Nuerhachi,努爾哈赤)

In 1559, Nurhachu was born in a slaver family in Manchu, roughly today in Xinbing County of Liaoning Province. In 1583, by right of thirteen suits of armors inherited from his father, he established his own troops. He led his troops and members of his race fought in the area of Changbaishan Mountain and Heihe River, and experienced a lot. After more than 30 years. He united many tribes of Manchu. In 1616, he founded a country named Houjin(后金). Since then his power became more and more strong, and begun to lay a strong foundation for establishment of Qing Dynasty. He was hurt seriously during the war with troops of Ming Dynasty under the leadership of General Yuan Chonghuan. He died in 1626 at the age of 68. He was buried in the east area of Shenyang. Publicly, people call his tomb Fuling(福陵).



Huangtaiji(皇太极)

Huangtaiji was the eighth son of Nurhachu, who was the founder of Qing Dynasty. Huangtaiji was born in 1592 and died in 1643. During his reign, he united the northeast of China, southwardly entered Korea Peninsula, westwardly fought against Mongolian and defeated the troops of Ming Dynasty for several times. In 1636, he officially established Qing Dynasty, and changed his tribe’s name to be Manchuria. He was ambitious and led his troop forward west. Via two large battles, he annihilated the strongest part of troops of Ming dynasty. Huangtaiji read a lot of books concerned about history and management. In military, he was bold and smart; in politics, he was pioneering and exploring; in culture, he largely learnt from Han people. He died before his military entered Shanhai Pass.


Emperor Shunzhi (Fulin,福臨)


Emperor Shunzhi was the first emperor of Qing Dynasty after Manchu troops successfully entered Shanhai Pass. He was the ninth son of Huangtaiji. He was born in 1638 and died in 1661 at the age of 24. He ruled China for 18 years. After his enthronement, Duergun(多尔衮) who was Shunzhi’s uncle helped him administrate the country. When he was 14 years old, his uncle went out for hunting and died in hunting field (in accordance with some non-governmental record and some folksays, Emperor Shunzhi was the son of Duoergun who fell in love with Dayuer(大玉兒,historically she was called Queen Mother Xiaozhuang or Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang(孝莊文皇后(1613 - 1688), known for the majority of her life under the title "Grand Empress Dowager", was the concubine of Emperor Huang Taiji, the mother of the Shunzhi Emperor and the grandmother of the Kangxi Emperor during the Qing Dynasty in China. She wielded significant influence over the Qing court during the rule of her son and grandson. Known for her wisdom and political ability, Xiaozhuang has become a largely respected figure in Chinese history, strictly in contrast to the despotic reputation of Empress Dowager Cixi)). Hence Fulin had to deal with national affairs in advance. Fulin was every smart and diligent, he learned a lot of advanced culture of Han people and changed the tradition and law in accordance with reality. He put officials and officers of Han people in an important position. He refused to give the nobles of Manchu priorities. In order to stabilize the society and promote the social development, he paid more attention to the danger of eunuch and many different parties based on different profit orientations. He also learned the lessons of breakdown of Ming Dynasty. He was cross easily and he was also perverse very much. After his loved concubine Donger died, he was very passive and had the sense of world-weariness. This is also one reason to show why he died so early. But there was another saying that he turned to be a monk in Wutaishan Mountain, because his son Emperor Kangxi used to visit Wutaishan Mountain unusually. He was only emperor that trusted Zen deeply.


Emperor Kangxi (Xuanye, 玄烨)

Emperor Kangxi was the third son of Emperor Shunzhi. Kangxi was born on May 4, 1654. Kangxi was the only emperor that ruled China for the longest time. The ruling time was 61 years. Since his childhood, Kangxi was very industrious. He was excellent in literature and martial arts. And he was talented in politics and national administration. He killed the cursed officer Ao Bai; he eliminated three local separatists and united Taiwan. He conquered the rebel of Zhungeer. He went to the battleground by himself and made the military decision boldly. He cautiously selected the officials and highly praised the clean-handed officials. He rebuilt the river bands and channels and put many Han officials in the important positions. All of these show that he was a talented politician and administrator. Compared with his political life, his family life was not so good. His sons’ conflicts in pursuit of next emperor let him feel exhausted. Emperor Kangxi was one of greatest leaders in ancient China.


Emperor Yongzheng(Yinzhen, 胤祯)

Yinzhen was the fourth son of Emperor Kangxi. He was born in 1678. At the age of 45, Yinzhen was enthroned to be the emperor. He ruled China for 13 years and died in Yuanmingyuan garden. At the early period of Kangxi-Qianlong Flourishing Age(康乾盛世), he acted as the top leader of China. At the time, the whole society was in stagnant period. The complicated society gave this emperor the chance to show his talent. He held many important reforms. He made a great contribution in his 13- year nation administration. And it laid a good foundation for the coming of prosperous time in the reign of Emperor Qianlong.


Emperor Qianlong(Hongli, 弘历)

Hongli (1711-1799) was the fourth son of Emperor Yongzheng. He ruled China four 60 years and just less one year than Emperor Kangxi’s ruling time (Emperor Qianlong highly respected his grandfather and once said his ruling time should be shorter than his grandfather. His grandfather ruled China for 61 years, so his ruling time is 60 years. So after his abdication, he also acted as three-year Post Emperor(太上皇)). He died at the age of 89. After his enthronement, he took many measures to develop the economy, and the whole society was prosperous and powerful. Emperor Qianlong was a talent scholar. He liked the traditional literature, poem, painting, visiting, calligraphy, horsing and arrow-shooting. He wrote a lot of poems and left many romantic stories during his six-time visit in southern China. He was also a famous antique collector and appreciator of painting and calligraphy masterpieces. The majority of paintings and calligraphy works were collected by Emperor Qianlong. In Palace Museum, on many ancient and rare pictures or calligraphy works, people can easily find Emperor Qianlong’s name or his seal. In a word, he was a typical literary emperor or well-educated emperor. Also he was also the representative of ancient literators. During his reign, he also ordered to compile a large-scale book system named Sikuquanshu (四库全书), which is comprised of 3503 kinds of books, 79337 volumes and 36304 books. Its number of volume is three-time more than Yongledadian (永乐大典). And it is the collection of China’s ancient culture and thought. But he put He Shen who was a corrupted official in the important position, and ran out of most of the wealth. His later period was the turning point of Qing Dynasty from power to declination.



Emperor Jiaqing (Yongyan, 顒琰)

The Emperor Jiaqing (1760–1820) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1796 to 1820. He was the fifteenth son of Emperor Qianlong. He died at the age of 61. he was remembered for his prosecution of Heshen (和珅), the infamously corrupt favorite of Qianlong, as well as for attempts to restore the state and curb the smuggling of opium inside China. He was born at the Old Summer Palace (圆明园), 8km (5 mi) northwest of the walls of Beijing, and was given the name Yongyan (永琰), changed into Yongyan (顒琰) when he became emperor: the first character of his private name was changed from 永 to 顒, both pronounced Yong, as the former is used commonly. This novelty was introduced by his father the Emperor Qianlong who thought it not proper to use a common character in the emperor's private name due to the long-standing practice of naming taboo. His mother was a Han Chinese concubine of the second rank Ling (令贵妃), who became a favorite of Qianlong. She was posthumously made Empress Xiao Yi Chun (孝仪纯皇后) when her son became emperor. During his reign time, China was declining sharply, and threatened by many world powers. Such a big but old imperial country can not be returned to a powerful one like it in the past. China’s destiny was not changed at all.



Emperor Daoguang(Mianning, 绵宁)

Emperor Daoguang was the sixth Emperor since Manchu entered Shanhai Pass. He ruled China for thirty years died at the age of 69. In September 1820, the age of 38, Mianning inherited the throne after his father the Jiaqing Emperor suddenly died of unknown causes. Now known as the Emperor Daoguang, he inherited a declining empire with Western imperialism encroaching upon the doorsteps of China. During his reign, China experienced major problems with opium, which was imported into China by British merchants. Opium had started to trickle into China during the reign of his great grandfather Emperor Yongzheng but was limited to approximately 200 boxes annually. By Emperor Qianlong's reign, the amount had increased to 1000 boxes, 4000 boxes by Jiaqing's era and more than 30,000 boxes during Daoguang's reign. He made many edicts against opium in the 1820s and 1830s, which were carried out by the famous Lin Zexu. Lin Zexu's effort to halt the spread of opium in China was quite successful, but, with the development of the First Opium War, Lin quickly fell out of favour and the Emperor Daoguang suddenly removed Lin's authority and banished him to Xinjiang. Daoguang's decision was a blow to China's effort to halt the influx of opium and deepened the Europeans' resolution to enter the vast Chinese market which eventually led to the First Opium War against Britain. Technologically and militarily inferior to the European powers and hobbled by the incompetence of the Qing government, China lost this war and was forced to surrender Hong Kong at the Treaty of Nanking in August 1842. Henceforth, Daoguang became the first emperor of the Qing Dynasty to have lost a portion of its sovereign territories. This was his personal tragedy also China’s tragedy.


Emperor Xianfeng (Yining, 奕宁)

The Emperor Xianfeng (1831-1861) was the eighth Emperor of the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty, and the seventh Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1850 to 1861. He was born in Old Summer Palace, or Yuanmingyuan garden. During his reign, the Qing Dynasty was weaker and weaker. The Rebellion of The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom broke out, and further set Nanjing as their headquarters to keep fighting against Qing dynasty. In the meantime, western invaders prepared to launch a new aggressive war. At such an atmosphere, Emperor Xianfeng put Zeng Guofan, who was an important officer of Han people, in the important position. In 1856, the second Opium War broke out; the weakening government was forced to agree to the unequal treaties with many foreign powers. Under the influence of the Concubine Yi (懿貴妃, later the Empress Dowager Cixi), believed in Chinese superiority and would not agree to any colonial demands. He delegated Prince Gong for several negotiations that failed to solve any significant problems. On October 18, 1860, the western forces went on to loot and burn the Imperial Summer Palaces of Qingyiyuan(清漪园) and Yuanmingyuan(圆明园). He escaped to Chengde.


Empress Dowager Cixi(Reign Behind a Curtain,垂帘听政)

Empress Dowager Cixi1 (慈禧太后, 1835–1908), popularly known in China as the West Dowager Empress (西太后), was from the Manchu Yehe Nara Clan. She was a powerful and charismatic figure who became the de facto ruler of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, ruling over China for 48 years from her husband's death in 1861 to her own death in 1908. Coming from an ordinary Manchu family and having been selected by the Xianfeng Emperor as a concubine, she exercised almost total control over the court under the nominal rule of her son the Tongzhi Emperor and her nephew the Guangxu Emperor, both of whom unsuccessfully attempted to rule in their own right. She was largely conservative during her rule and refused reform of the political system. Many historians considered her reign despotic, and attribute the fall of the Qing Dynasty, and therefore Imperial China, to Cixi's rule.


Emperor Tongzhi(Zaichun, 载淳)

Zaichun was born in 1856 and died at the age of 19; he just acted as Emperor 14 year. During his reign, relying on important officers such as Zeng Guofan, Li Hongzhang and Zuo Zongtang and so on, many farmer insurgences including The Rebellion of The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom were conquered. And some new reforms were done. Of course, these things were unconnected with Emperor Kangxi. It was done by his mother Ci Xi, who was the actual ruler. He died of smallpox.


Emperor Guangxu(Zaitian, 载恬)

Emperor Guangxu was born in 1871, and his father was the seventh son of Emperor Daoguang and his mother was the sister of Cixi. He ruled China for 34 years and died at the age of 38. He fell in loved with a concubine named Zhenfei. He was also ambitious and wanted to change the bad condition of China. He supported Wuxu Reform(戊戌变法, was a failed 104-day national cultural, political and educational reform movement from 11 June to 21 September 1898, undertaken by the young Guangxu Emperor and his reform-minded supporters led by Kang Youwei.). But finally he failed and he was under house arrest. When Eight-Power Allied Forces occupied Beijing, he was carted off by Cixi. He died tragically.


Emperor Xuantong (Puyi, 溥仪)

Emperor Xuantong was born in 1906 and died in 1967 at the age of 61. His autobiography was My First Half Life. In 1912, he was forced to abdicate due to the success of Xinhai Revolution (辛亥革命, also known as the 1911 Revolution or the Chinese Revolution, began with the Wuchang Uprising on October 10, 1911 and ended with the abdication of Emperor Puyi on February 12, 1912. The primary parties to the conflict were the Imperial forces of the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911), and the revolutionary forces of the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance (Tongmenghui). The revolution is so named because 1911 is a Xinhai Year in the sexagenary cycle of the Chinese calendar.) in 1931, he was held by Japanese invaders and went to Northeast of China and in 1932, he acted as the administrator of puppet state named Manzhougou(满洲国). After 1949, he acted as the member of the National Committee of CPPCC.
 
 
 
 
 

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