Emperor TaizhuEmperor HuidiEmperor Chengzu
 Emperor Renzong Emperor XuanzongEmperor Yingzong
 Emperor Daizong Emperor XianzongEmperor Xiaozong
 Emperor WuzongEmperor ShizongEmperor Muzong
Emperor Shenzong Emperor GuangzongEmperor Xizong
Emperor Sizong
Emperor Taizu
Name:Zhu Yuanzhang (1328-1398)
Enthronement in 1368
Abdication in 1398

Zhu Yuanzhang was born in Fengyang of Anhui, and his era name was Hongwu(洪武). In August, 1368, the insurgent troops under the leadership of Zhu Yuanzhang, Xu Da as well as Chang Yuchun occupied Beijing, the former capital of Yuan Dynasty, and it meant the perdition of Yuan Dynasty. In the same year, Zhu Yuanzhang was enthroned to be the Emperor in Nanjing, since then Ming Dynasty was established formally. Zhu Yuanzhang was Emperor Taizu and he died at the age of 71 

Emperor Huidi
Name: Zhu Yunwen (1377-1402)
Enthronement in 1398
Abdication in 1402

Zhu Yunwen, the grandson of Zhu Yuanzhang, was Emperor Huidi and his era name was Jianwen(建文). When Zhu Yuanzhang was still alive, he nominated many kings, and more than 20 sons of Zhu Yuanzhang were appointed to the kings, besides all of them were respectively stationed in different areas. After Emperor Huidi was enthroned, many defaulted taxations were exempted and many disaster-stricken citizens were helped and relieved by government. Emperor Huidi also ordered the local governments to redeem those slaves who sold themselves or were sold by their family for survival. Furthermore he also forbade the monks and Taoists to master a large number of farmlands, and which was helpful for majority of social grassroots having their farmland. Many measures or policies were taken for relieving the social conflict. What’s more, he maintained the diminishment of local separatism, which angered many local kings. Zhu Di, at the time was Yan-State King led his troop back to Nanjing under the color of helping Emperor govern the country, and he occupied Nanjing in 1402. According to the official record, Zhu Yunwen was burnt to death. However, according to many folksays, Zhu Yunwen fled to west (by the way, this is also one reason for Emperor Chengzu ordering Zheng He to visit west for sevens time by fleet).

Emperor Chengzu
Name:Zhu Di (1360--1424)
Enthronement in 1402
Abdication in 1424
Emperor Zhu Di was the fourth son of Zhu Yuanzhang, and his era name was Yongle(永乐). In the name of eliminating the cursed officials, he came back to Nanjing and launched a famous historical incident, which was Jingnanzhiyi(靖难之役) in historical record. And after four-year civil war, Zhu Di successfully defeated the former royal troops, and got the sovereignty of Ming Dynasty. He was Emperor Chengzu, and in 1421 he moved Capital from Nanjing to Beijing. He also demanded his officials to edit a series of book named Yongle Dadian (永乐大典), which once was the largest series of book in the world. He died at the age of 65.

Emperor Renzong
Name: Zhu Gaochi(1378-1425)
Enthronement in 1424
Abdication in 1425

Zhu Gaochi was the eldest son of Emperor Chengzhu of Ming Dynasty, and his era name was Hongxi(洪熙), Emperor Renzong was clear and bright in political administration. He also took many measures to relieve the social problems. He just was an Emperor for one year and died at the age of 48.

Emperor Xuanzong
Name: Zhu Zhanji (1398-1435)
Enthronement in 1425
Abdication in 1435

Zhu Zhanji was the eldest son of Emperor Rengzong and its era name was Xuande(宣德). The same as his father, he was willing to accepting the viewpoints and suggestions of his officials. At his reign time, he had a good touch with his officials and the economic development is also stable. Emperor Xuanzong died at the age of 38.

Emperor Yingzong
Name;Zhu Qizhen (1427-1464)
Enthronement in 1435
Abdication in 1449

Zhu Qizhen was the eldest son of Zhu Zhanji, and his era name was Zhengtong(正统). He was enthroned at the age of 9, and then the whole government was mastered by Wang Zhen, a eunuch. In 1449, army of Qirat (a minority used to live in the north of China) southwardly invaded midland, and Emperor Yingzong was captured. This historical incident was named officially Tumuzhibian(土木之变). In 1450, Emperor Yingzong was released. He was not emperor once again until in 1457, and he died in 1464 at the age of 37.

Emperor Daizong
Name;Zhu Qiyu(1428-1457)
Enthronement in 1449 
Abdication in 1457

Zhu Qiyu was the second son of Emperor Xuanzong, and his era name was Jingtai(景泰). After Emperor Yingzong was captured, he was enthroned to be the Emperor. After enthronement, he ordered Yu Qian (a famous official or officer in ancient China) to be the Minister of National Defense. Under the leadership of Yu Qian, Qirat’s aim at occupying Beijing was failed. It also forced Qirat to set free Emperor Yingzong. After Emperor Yingzong came back, Zhu Qiyu made him under house arrest until 1457 when Zhu Qiyu was dying. He died at the age of 30.

Emperor Xianzong
Name: Zhu Jianshen(1447-1487)
Enthronement in 1464 
Abdication in 1487
Zhu Jianshen was the eldest son of Emperor Yingzong, and his era name was Chenghua(成化). Emperor Xianzong was indulged himself into the doctrine of Taoist longevity, and he was a lewdster. In his reign, the eunuch mastered the power and killed many honest officials. In 1487, he died at the age of 41.

Emperor Xiaozong
Name:Zhu Youtang (1470-1505)
Enthronement in 1487
Abdication in 1505

Zhu Youtang was the third son of Emperor Xianzong, and his era name was Hongzhi (弘治). He did many contributions to reform the government, and he largely changed the condition that the cursed officials and eunuchs mastered the power of country. He died in 1505 at the age of 36.

Emperor Wuzong
Name: Zhu Houzhao (1491-1521)
Enthronement in 1505
Abdication in 1521

Zhu Houzhao was the eldest son of Emperor Xiaozong, and his era name was Zhengde (正德). He indulged himself into amusement and leisure. And his was also a lewdster. He was the most famous emperor for its absurdity. He died of lechery at the age of 31.

Emperor Shizong
Name: Zhu Houcong(1507-1566)
Enthronement in 1521
Abdication in 1566

Zhu Houcong was the grandson of Emperor Xianzong, and his era name was Jiajing (嘉靖). In early period of his governing, he did a lot of contributions in government management. He killed a lot of cursed eunuchs and decreased the governmental expenditure, but in latter period, he was over lech and the politics was corrupted. Many farmer uprisings broke out. Emperor Shizong died of poisoning when he ate the medicine of Taoism at the age of 60.

Emperor Muzong
Name Zhu Zaihou(1537-1572)
Enthronement in 1566
Abdication in 1572

Zhu Zaihou was the third son of Emperor Sizong, and his era name was Longqing (隆庆) he died at the age of 36.

Emperor Shenzong
Name: Zhu Yijun (1563-1620)
Enthronement in 1572
Abdication in 1620

Zhu Yijun was the third son of Emperor Muzong, and his era name was Wanli(万历). He was enthroned to be emperor at the age of 10. The national affairs were done by Queen Mother Chen and Concubine Li. Since he officially administrated the national affairs, he always lived in the palaces and led a lewd life. In his reign, the corrupted politics let many people disappointed. In the meantime, in north of China, Nurhachu founded a country named Houjin, and since then, he begun to look into the center China. Emperor Shenzong died at the age of 58.

Emperor Guangzong
Name: Zhu Changluo(1582-1620)
Enthronement in 1620
Abdication in 1620

Zhu Changluo was the eldest son of Emperor Shenzong, and his era name was Changtai(泰昌). He was a greed-man and lecher. On his enthroning day, he was ill for over leching. He died at the age of 39 for eating much cinnabaris, which was said to be one part of longevity medicine.

Emperor Xizong
Name: Zhu Youxiao(1605-1627)
Enthronement in 1620
Abdication in 1627

Zhu Youxiao was the eldest of Emperor Guangzong, and his era name was Tianqi(天启). At his reign, he nominated Wei Zhongxian, a cursed eunuch, as the top operator. During this time, many famous and talented officials or officers were killed due to persecution. In the meantime, Nurhachu occupied Shenyang. Zhu Youxiao died at the age of 23.

Emperor Sizong
Name: Zhu Youjian (1610- 1644)
Enthronement in 1627
Abdication in 1644

Zhu Youjian was the fifth son of Emperor Guangzong, and his era name was Chongzhen(崇祯). After his enthronement, he killed Wei Zhongxian and worked hard at national affairs in order to change such a risky situation. But it was too late. Inside governing area, farmer’s insurgences appeared successively and in north Manchu troops always broke in for invasion. Furthermore Zhu Youjian was suspicious and perverse. Finally, Li Zicheng leading his farmer uprising troops invaded Beijing in 1644. He committed suicide in hanging by the neck at the age of 35. Before he died, he wrote six big Chinese Characters on his garments” 勿伤百姓一人(Don’t Hurt Any Common People)”.

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